Turkish Archives of Pediatrics
Original Article

Do the Children of Mothers with Optimum PICCOLO Scores Have Better Denver II Test Results?


Department of Pediatrics, University of Health Sciences, Ankara City Hospital, Children’s Hospital, Bilkent, Ankara, Turkey


Department of Pediatrics, Unit of Developmental Pediatrics and Social Pediatrics, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey


Unit of Child Development, Bayındır Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

Turk Arch Pediatr 2021; 56: 423-428
DOI: 10.5152/TurkArchPediatr.2021.20194
Read: 124 Downloads: 57 Published: 01 September 2021

Aim: Positive parenting skills, especially mother–child interactions, are associated with positive effects in countless areas of child development. We aimed to evaluate mother–child interactions in children with developmental delay compared to those with age-appropriate development. 

Material and Methods: Children aged 1-5 years admitted to the outpatient clinic for child health supervision were evaluated for the study. A 10-minute video recording was obtained while the participant mother–child couple played together in a room. Children were divided into 3 developmental groups using the Denver Developmental Screening Test II (DDST-II); as age-appropriate, questionable, and delayed. Mother–child interaction was assessed using the “Parenting Interactions with Children: Checklist of Observations Linked to Outcomes” (PICCOLO) tool. 

Results: A total of 142 children, whose developmental status was evaluated according to DDST-II and were grouped as age-appropriate (59), questionable (39), and delayed (44), were included in the study. The mean age of the children was 29.0 ± 11.9 months. The median PICCOLO score was 43 (interquartile range (IQR)=36-47) in the age-appropriate developmental group, 44 (IQR=35-51) in the questionable group, and 36 (IQR=32-45) in the delayed group. When adjusted for child’s age, gender, presence of a sibling, maternal age, mother’s education level, mother’s occupation, and household size, multiple logistic regression revealed higher rates for optimum responsiveness and encouragement domains, and total scores in age-appropriate and questionable groups, than in the delayed development group (P < .05). 

Conclusion: Supporting all areas, especially the responsive and encouragement domains in mother–child interactions, may improve child development.

Cite this article as: Ayar G, Yalçın SS, Bayoğlu B. Do the children of mothers with optimum PICCOLO scores have better Denver II test results?. Turk Arch Pediatr. 2021; 56(5): 423-428.

EISSN 2757-6256