Turkish Archives of Pediatrics
Review

Approach to Rickets: Is It Calciopenic or Phosphopenic?

1.

Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey

Turk Arch Pediatr 2023; 58: 458-466
DOI: 10.5152/TurkArchPediatr.2023.23050
Read: 956 Downloads: 330 Published: 11 July 2023

Rickets is a childhood disorder of decreased mineralization of bone tissue. It is either calciopenic or phosphopenic, according to the deficient mineral. Calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D metabolism should be known to understand the pathophysiology of rickets. A deficiency of calcium or vitamin D can be caused by several conditions. These conditions lead to defective osteoid mineralization, impaired chondrocyte differentiation, and apoptosis in the growth plate, resulting in clinical and radiological findings of rickets. Rickets developing as a result of vitamin D deficiency is the most frequently encountered form. Vitamin D-dependent rickets classification is made according to genetic abnormalities of enzymes that are involved in vitamin D metabolism. Phosphopenic rickets is divided mainly into 2 categories that are FGF23 related or not. A systemic approach that includes a detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory evaluation is required when performing a diagnostic evaluation. Vitamin D and calcium supplementation should be used to treat nutritional rickets. To prevent rickets and its morbidities, vitamin D prophylaxis in the newborn period is suggested. High dose of vitamin D3, 1.25(OH)2D, and calcium are treatment choices in vitamin D-dependent rickets according to its subgroup. If conventional treatment consisting of phosphate and calcitriol is ineffective in the treatment of phosphopenic rickets, Burosumab is the new treatment option.

Cite this article as: Abseyi SN, Şıklar Z. Approach to rickets: Is it calciopenic or phosphopenic? Turk Arch Pediatr. 2023;58(5):458-466.

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