Turkish Archives of Pediatrics
Original Article

A Large Turkish Cohort of Williams Syndrome: The Evaluation of Facial, Cardiovascular, and Neuropsychiatric Features


Department of Pediatric Genetics, İstanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty, İstanbul, Turkey


Department of Pediatrics, İstanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty, İstanbul, Turkey


Department of Pediatric Cardiology, İstanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty, İstanbul, Turkey

Turk Arch Pediatr 2023; 58: 182-188
DOI: 10.5152/TurkArchPediatr.2023.22212
Read: 1059 Downloads: 359 Published: 01 March 2023

Objective:Williams syndrome is caused by a microdeletion at 7q11.23 and is characterized by a distinctive face, cardiovascular disease, and intellectual disability with a specific cognitive and behavioral profile. This study aims to evaluate the clinical features and obtain important information that can guide early diagnoses and correct follow-up.

Materials and Methods: The study included 78 patients whose diagnoses were confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Facial features, anthropometric measurements, and neurocognitive, endocrine, and urinary system evaluations were obtained from the medical records, and photographs of the patients were evaluated retrospectively.

Results: The most common complaints at admission were cardiovascular disease and atypical face. The mean age at admission was 39 ± 4.8 months. The mean age of patients presenting with atypical face was 41 ± 5.6 months, while it was 11 ± 3.1 months in patients presenting with cardiovascular disease. Short nose/bulbous nasal type with anteverted nares and periorbital fullness, which are diagnostic facial features, were present in all patients in the infantile/ early childhood period. 80% of the patients had cardiovascular disease; supravalvular aortic stenosis (53.8%) and peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis (41%) were the most common cardiac anomalies.Intel lectu al/de velop menta l disability was present in 75.6% of the patients. Behavioral disorders including autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were detected in 50% of our patients. Hypersensitivity to loud and/or sudden sounds was present in all patients.

Conclusion: We highlighted that recognition of facial findings is important for early diagnosis, especially in patients without cardiovascular disease. The frequency of cardiovascular, endocrinological, renal anomalies, and intellectual disab ility /deve lopme ntal delay was described that provide valuable information in the follow-up of patients.

Cite this article as: Bozlak S, Uludağ Alkaya D, Kasap B, et al. A large Turkish cohort of Williams syndrome: The evaluation of facial, cardiovascular, and neuropsychiatric features. Turk Arch Pediatr. 2023;58(2):182-188.

EISSN 2757-6256